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Milicianos de Pensilvania asesinan a aliados patriotas

Milicianos de Pensilvania asesinan a aliados patriotas


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El 8 de marzo de 1782, 160 milicianos de Pensilvania asesinaron a 96 indios cristianos (39 niños, 29 mujeres y 28 hombres) martillando sus cráneos con mazos desde atrás mientras se arrodillaban desarmados, rezando y cantando, en su Misión Morava en Gnadenhutten, en el país de Ohio. . Luego, los Patriots amontonaron los cuerpos de sus víctimas en los edificios de la misión antes de quemar a toda la comunidad. Dos niños lograron sobrevivir, aunque uno había perdido el cuero cabelludo a manos de sus atacantes. Aunque los milicianos afirmaron que buscaban venganza por las redadas en sus asentamientos fronterizos, los nativos americanos que asesinaron no habían jugado ningún papel en ningún ataque.

Este infame ataque a los no combatientes llevó a una pérdida de fe en los patriotas por parte de sus aliados indios y a represalias contra los patriotas cautivos bajo custodia nativa. Los nativos americanos resucitaron la práctica de la tortura ritualizada, interrumpida durante la Guerra de los Siete Años, en los hombres que pudieron aprehender que habían participado en la atrocidad de Gnadenhutten.

Aunque los moravos y sus conversos indios eran pacifistas que se negaban a matar bajo ninguna circunstancia, encontraron otras formas de ayudar a la causa patriota. Como otros aliados indios que se negaron a matar a otros indios, ayudaron a los patriotas trabajando como guías y espías. Los misioneros alemanes de Moravia también estaban proporcionando a los estadounidenses información crítica, por lo que luego fueron arrestados y juzgados por los británicos.

Nada de esto protegió a los indígenas cuando 160 miembros de la milicia de Pensilvania decidieron actuar como juez, jurado y verdugo. Los nativos de Delaware que asesinaron eran pacifistas neutrales. Sus misioneros cristianos estaban ayudando a la causa patriota. Además, no vivían de la manera descrita como salvaje por los colonos europeos, sino que se dedicaban a la agricultura asentada al estilo europeo en su aldea de misión. No había ninguna justificación política, religiosa o cultural para la brutalidad indiscriminada de los milicianos durante la masacre de Gnadenhutten; el incidente es tristemente ilustrativo del racismo anti-indio que a veces superó incluso las lealtades políticas durante la Revolución Americana.


Un pennsylvaniai mil & # 237ci & # 225k & # 233rtelmetlen & # 252l meggyilkolt & # 225k a Patriot sz & # 246vets & # 233geseit

Ezen az 1782-es napon 160 pennsylvaniai milicia 96 kereszt & # 233ny indi & # 225n 39 gyermeket, 29 nőt & # 233s 28 f & # 233rfit gyilkolt meg, mert h & # 225tul fegyvertelen t & # 233rdre t & # 233ve, im & # 233sva # 233nekelve kopony & # 225ikat kalap & # 225ccsal & # 252tik meg, mik & # 246zben morvaiai misszi & # 243jukban Gnadenhuettenben, az Ohio-orsz & # 225gban. Una prueba hazafiak ezut & # 225n az & # 225ldozatok & # 233t a misszi & # 243 & # 233p & # 252letekbe rakott & # 225k, mielőtt az eg & # 233sz k & # 246z & # 246ss & # 233get f & # 246ldre & # 233kgett & # 233kgett. K & # 233t fi & # 250nak siker & # 252lt t & # 250l & # 233lnie, b & # 225r az egyik elvesztette a fejbőr & # 233t a t & # 225mad & # 243k sz & # 225m & # 225ra. Noha a mil & # 237ci & # 225k azt & # 225ll & # 237tott & # 225k, hogy bossz & # 250t & # 225llnak a hat & # 225r menti telep & # 252l & ​​# 233seken indiai t & # 225mad & # 225sok & # 233rt, az & # 225ltaluk meggyilkol nem j & # 225tszottak szerepet semmilyen t & # 225mad & # 225sban.

Ez a nem harcosok elleni h & # 237rhedt t & # 225mad & # 225s az indiai sz & # 246vets & # 233geseik hit & # 233t elvesztette a hazafiakban, & # 233s megind & # 237tj & # 225k azfi őrizetben tartott haat. Az indi & # 225nok fieltro & # 225masztott & # 225k a h & # 233t & # 233v h & # 225bor & # 250ja sor & # 225n abbahagyott, a szertart & # 225sos k & # 237nz & # 225s gyakorlat & # 225t olyan f & # 233rfia volkra & # 233 lepetaketk 243ztatni, akik r & # 233szt vettek a Gnadenhuetten atrocit & # 225sban.

Noha a morvaiak & # 233s indiai megt & # 233r & # 245ik pacifist & # 225k voltak, akik semmilyen k & # 246r & # 252lm & # 233nyek k & # 246z & # 246tt nem hajland & # 243ak meg & # 246lni, m & a # 243ak meg & # 246lni, m & 243 & # 252gy & # 233nek seg & # 237t & # 233s & # 233re. M & # 225s indiai sz & # 246vets & # 233gesekhez hasonl & # 243an, akik megtagadt & # 225k az indi & # 225n t & # 225rsaik meg & # 246l & # 233s & # 233t, seg & # 237tett & # 233k a # 233skutat & # 233kutat & # 233skutat munk & # 225j & # 225val. A n & # 233met morva misszion & # 225riusok az amerikaiak sz & # 225m & # 225ra es kritikus inform & # 225ci & # 243kat szolg & # 225ltattak, amelyeket k & # 233sőbb a brit letart & # 243ztattak & # 233skb & # 243ztattak & # 233s megpr.

Ezek egyike sem v & # 233dte az indi & # 225nokat, amikor a Pennsylvania mil & # 237cia 160 tagja & # 250gy d & # 246nt & # 246tt, hogy b & # 237r & # 243, zsűri & # 233s kiv & # 233gzők & # 233nt j & # 246tt. Un meggyilkolt Delaware-indi & # 225nok semleges pacifist & # 225k voltak. Kereszt & # 233ny misszion & # 225riusok seg & # 237tett & # 233k a Patriot & # 252gy & # 233t. R & # 225ad & # 225sul nem az eur & # 243pai telepesek & # 225ltal vadnak nevezett m & # 243don & # 233ltek, hanem misszi & # 243s falukban ink & # 225bb eur & # 243pai st & # 237lus & # 250 telepesek foglalkoztak. Nem volt politikai, vall & # 225si vagy kultur & # 225lis indok a mil & # 237ci & # 225k v & # 225logat & # 225s n & # 233lk & # 252li brutalit & # 225s & # 225ra a Gnadenhuetten m & # 233sz & # 225rl & # 225s esem & # 23 # 250an szeml & # 233lteti az anti-indiai rasszizmust, amely n & # 233ha ak & # 225r politikai hűs & # 233geket is ki & # 225ltott az amerikai forradalom alatt.


Milicianos de Pensilvania asesinan a aliados patriotas - HISTORIA

Nombre:
Coronel William Crawford

Región:
Laurel Highlands / Alleghenies del sur

Condado:
Fayette

Ubicación del marcador:
S. Pittsburgh St. cerca de Wills Rd., Connellsville

Fecha de la dedicación:
18 de octubre de 1918

Detrás del marcador

El coronel William Crawford sufrió una muerte espantosa a manos de sus captores indios. Según un testimonio de un testigo ocular, lo ataron a un poste y "se dispararon setenta tiros de pólvora contra su cuerpo. Luego, los indios le cortaron las orejas, lo pincharon con palos encendidos y le arrojaron ascuas calientes. extremidades de dolor durante una hora y tres cuartos o dos horas más ... cuando por fin, casi exhausto, se acostó boca abajo y luego le arrancaron el cuero cabelludo ... Una vieja india tomó una tabla, tomó un paquete de brasas y cenizas y las puso sobre su espalda y cabeza, después de haber sido arrancado el cuero cabelludo.

El coronel Crawford se puso de pie y comenzó a caminar alrededor del poste, luego le pusieron un palo ardiendo como de costumbre, pero parecía más insensible al dolor que antes. él para poner fin a su miseria con una bala.

Crawford no fue el único patriota estadounidense asesinado de esta manera, pero el suyo se convirtió en el caso más famoso de lo que los contemporáneos llamaron la crueldad bárbara de los aliados indios de Gran Bretaña en la Guerra de Independencia. Los indios, por supuesto, lo vieron de otra manera. La tortura ritual y la ejecución de cautivos de guerra masculinos habían sido parte de la cultura india mucho antes de que los europeos llegaran a la escena.

Además, Crawford era un comandante de milicianos patriotas que habían cometido sus propias atrocidades contra las comunidades indígenas en la frontera de Pensilvania. Pocos meses antes de la muerte de Crawford, una banda de milicianos de Pensilvania había asesinado sistemáticamente a noventa y seis indios neutrales de Delaware, todos ellos cristianos conversos que vivían en la ciudad misionera morava de Gnadenhutten.

En el oeste de Pensilvania, las batallas de la Revolución Americana degeneraron en este tipo de violencia vigilante, y cada lado podría acusar al otro con justicia de cometer atrocidades. Después de la Revolución, los patriotas victoriosos utilizaron incidentes como la tortura de William Crawford para justificar el despojo de los indios de Pensilvania, pero convenientemente se olvidaron de conmemorar incidentes como la Masacre de Gnadenhutten.

William Crawford, nacido en la zona rural de Virginia en 1732, pasó su juventud trabajando en la granja familiar. En 1749, conoció a George Washington, un joven agrimensor, quien le enseñó el oficio y lo contrató para inspeccionar siete extensiones de tierra, más de 2,000 acres en total, en el condado de Fayette. Como Washington, Crawford quería unirse al ejército y explorar la frontera. Esa oportunidad llegó durante la Guerra de Francia e India, cuando se unió al ejército británico.

Impresionado por la zona rural del oeste de Pensilvania, Crawford estableció en 1765 su hogar a lo largo del río Youghiogheny. Durante la siguiente década, se desempeñó como Juez de Paz en los condados de Cumberland, Bedford y Westmoreland, y se distinguió como un formidable luchador indio, sobre todo en la Guerra de Lord Dunmore contra los Shawnee del Valle de Ohio en 1774.

Durante la Guerra por la Independencia de Estados Unidos, Crawford fue comisionado coronel de la séptima Virginia y sirvió con distinción en las batallas de Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine y Germantown. A finales de 1777, tomó el mando de las tropas continentales y la milicia en el oeste de Pensilvania. La reputación de Crawford como luchador indio lo convirtió en el comandante de una desafortunada expedición contra los indios de Delaware de Sandusky, Ohio, en la primavera de 1782. No estaba familiarizado con el terreno e incapaz de reponer sus tropas, el ejército de Crawford de fronterizo experimentado fue derrotado. y estaba entre los soldados llevados cautivos.

Simon Girty, un ex cautivo indio que en ese entonces se desempeñaba como capitán de guerra entre los indios aliados británicos, presenció la muerte de Crawford y supuestamente se rió en respuesta a las súplicas de clemencia de Crawford. Después de enterarse del brutal destino de Crawford el 11 de junio de 1782, el Paquete de Pensilvania informó que la milicia estatal estaba "muy furiosa y decidida a tener una amplia satisfacción". Sin embargo, el periódico se olvidó convenientemente de mencionar que Crawford fue torturado en represalia por la masacre de Gnadenhutten. Por lo tanto, los colonos fronterizos de Pensilvania interpretaron la muerte de Crawford como no provocada, lo que solo sirvió para inflamar la ya fuerte hostilidad que sentían hacia los nativos americanos.


Milicianos de Pensilvania asesinan a aliados patriotas - HISTORIA

Nombre:
Batalla de Wyoming

Región:
Poconos / Montañas sin fin

Condado:
Luzerne

Ubicación del marcador:
Estados Unidos 11 en Wyoming en el monumento

Fecha de la dedicación:
Junio ​​de 1952

Detrás del marcador

La Batalla de Wyoming y la masacre que siguió, en julio de 1778, ha sido llamada el "horror supremo de la Revolución Americana" debido a los actos brutales y horribles cometidos por los guerreros de la Confederación Iroquois y sus aliados británicos y leales contra los Yankees de Connecticut que habían se instaló Wyoming Valley en Pensilvania. Ambos eventos sangrientos fueron parte de una disputa de tierras más grande entre los reclamantes de Pennsylvania, Connecticut y los nativos americanos. El hecho de que ocurrieran durante la Revolución Americana refleja la influencia explosiva de la revolución interna de Pensilvania en la lucha por la independencia de Gran Bretaña.

Después del éxito de las fuerzas de Pensilvania contra los habitantes de Nueva Inglaterra en la "Primera Guerra Yankee-Pennamite" de 1769-1771, los colonos de Connecticut continuaron filtrándose en el Valle de Wyoming. Otra serie de fuertes escaramuzas en la parte superior del valle de Susquehanna siguió durante los próximos años con bajas modestas y sin ganadores ni perdedores claros. Las hostilidades culminaron el día de Navidad de 1775 en la batalla de Rampart Rocks cerca de la actual West Nanticoke, donde los yanquis derrotaron a una fuerza pennamita de 600 hombres. La victoria estimuló a la Asamblea General de Connecticut a establecer el condado de Westmoreland, que pronto creció a 3.000 residentes.

La guerra de bajo grado continuó en el Valle de Wyoming hasta principios de la primavera de 1776. Con la Guerra por la Independencia de Estados Unidos amenazando con extenderse a las fronteras de Pensilvania, el Congreso Continental, a mediados de abril, hizo un llamamiento a los yanquis y pennamitas para que cesaran sus hostilidades y "únanse a sus hermanos en América en la causa común de defender su libertad".

El condado de Westmoreland levantó inmediatamente una milicia y dos compañías, que se unieron a la Línea Connecticut del Ejército Continental. Algunos de los colonos de Pensilvania también favorecieron la independencia estadounidense. Pero muchos de los pennamitas pensaban que era más probable que Gran Bretaña favoreciera sus pretensiones sobre los yanquis si luchaban en el lado de los casacas rojas. Para complicar las cosas, los iroqueses del oeste de Nueva York aceptaron luchar por los británicos con la esperanza de que, al hacerlo, recuperarían su propio control del valle de Wyoming.

Con el apoyo de los Rangers británicos del capitán John Butler, los líderes iroqueses comenzaron a planear aterrorizar a los colonos de Wyoming. Encontraron aliados dispuestos en los reclamantes de tierras de Pensilvania desplazados que ahora viven al norte de Wyoming. A medida que estas fuerzas se movilizaron, a fines de la primavera de 1778, el coronel Zebulon Butler, un destacado colono de Connecticut y oficial del ejército continental, asumió el mando de más de 386 milicianos yanquis que se reunieron para proteger a su comunidad.

El 1 de julio, la fuerza de John Butler de aproximadamente 1,000 tropas británicas regulares, irregulares leales e indios, marchó hacia el valle de Wyoming y tomó el control de los fuertes yanquis Wintermoot y Jenkins, en las orillas occidentales del río Susquehanna, justo encima de Wilkes-Barre.

A la mañana siguiente, la fuerza combinada indio-leal de 500 marchó hacia el sur y exigió la rendición de Forty Fort. El coronel Zebulon Butler y otros oficiales superiores instaron a la precaución, debatiendo si permanecer en el fuerte y esperar refuerzos, o salir y enfrentarse a los asaltantes en campo abierto. Con Washington y el Ejército Continental en camino a Nueva Jersey en julio de 1778, había pocas esperanzas de apoyo inmediato. Cuanto más debatían los oficiales, más presionaron los milicianos más jóvenes para un ataque, acusándolos de cobardía.

Como otros milicianos de Nueva Inglaterra, que tenían una reputación de comportamiento asertivo y democrático, los Yankees de Connecticut entendieron sus términos de alistamiento literalmente como "contratos" que debían cumplirse en detalle o de lo contrario el contrato sería inválido. Se alistaron para luchar, no para esperar un ataque. Al darse cuenta de esto, los oficiales cedieron a su demanda de asalto. Fue un error fatal.

Poco antes del mediodía del 3 de julio, Butler y sus 386 milicianos marcharon desde Forty Fort para luchar contra la fuerza de invasión británica-iroquesa-pennamita. Mientras marchaban hacia Fort Wintermoot para lanzar su ataque, las tropas fueron avistadas por un grupo de búsqueda de alimentos de indios. Al informar al coronel británico John Butler que los yanquis estaban a una milla de su posición, Butler ordenó que el fuerte "se incendiara para que el enemigo fuera engañado haciéndole creer que se había retirado". Butler luego procedió a organizar su línea de batalla en los bosques circundantes.

Aproximadamente a las 3:00 p.m., Butler y su milicia yanqui llegaron a Wintermoot, que ahora estaba en llamas. Pero el oficial yanqui no se dejó engañar y se burló de los invasores mientras desplegaba a sus hombres para la batalla. "¡Salid, villanos Tories!" gritó. "¡Salgan y muestren sus cabezas si se atreven, a los valientes Hijos Continentales de la Libertad!"

Cuando los Rangers británicos y sus aliados pennamitas e iroqueses ignoraron su demanda, Butler dio la orden de atacar y sus milicianos marcharon hacia adelante para lanzar su primera descarga. Dispararon tres ráfagas, sin resistencia del enemigo, que seguía tendido en el bosque. Sin embargo, cuando los yanquis estuvieron a menos de 100 yardas de su posición, los guerreros iroqueses surgieron del bosque. Apoyados por la potencia de fuego de los Rangers y Pennamites británicos, los indios flanquearon a las fuerzas yanquis, que se retiraron en confusión. En treinta minutos, la Batalla de Wyoming había terminado y había comenzado la "Masacre de Wyoming".

Los iroqueses flanqueantes cortaron la retirada yanqui a Forty Fort y los colocaron en un sangriento fuego cruzado tanto de los Rangers británicos como de los Pennamites. Durante el resto del día, los milicianos de Connecticut fueron torturados, asesinados y, en algunos casos, arrancados el cuero cabelludo. Muchos yanquis "se lanzaron al río Susquehanna con la esperanza de escapar, sólo para ser traspasados ​​por las lanzas de los indios". Al amanecer de la mañana siguiente, sus "cadáveres flotaban río abajo, infestando las orillas del Susquehanna". Solo sobrevivieron sesenta de los milicianos yanquis que marcharon a la batalla. Los iroqueses tomaron el cuero cabelludo de 227 yanquis asesinados, a pesar de la orden británica de "respetar sus restos".

El valle de Wyoming fue despoblado en gran parte de colonos blancos después del verano de 1778. La masacre se convirtió en una importante herramienta de propaganda para la causa patriota, lo que obligó al general George Washington a nombrar al general de división John Sullivan para liderar una campaña enorme y cuidadosamente planificada contra la Iroquois en la frontera de Pensilvania y Nueva York en el otoño de 1779. El éxito de esa campaña hizo que los iroqueses cedieran sus tierras en Pensilvania y el oeste de Nueva York a los Estados Unidos en virtud del Tratado de Fort Stanwix en 1784. Mientras que la tierra del Valle de Wyoming La disputa entre Connecticut y Pensilvania se prolongaría hasta principios del siglo XIX, la frontera norte se había asegurado de nuevas invasiones.


Milicianos de Pensilvania asesinan sin sentido a los aliados de los Patriotas - 08 de marzo de 1782 - HISTORY.com

TSgt Joe C.

En este día de 1782, 160 milicianos de Pensilvania asesinan a 96 indios cristianos (39 niños, 29 mujeres y 28 hombres) martillando sus cráneos con mazos desde atrás mientras se arrodillan desarmados, orando y cantando, en su Misión Morava en Gnadenhuetten, en el país de Ohio. . Luego, los Patriots apilaron los cuerpos de sus víctimas en los edificios de la misión antes de quemar a toda la comunidad. Dos niños lograron sobrevivir, aunque uno había perdido el cuero cabelludo a manos de sus atacantes. Aunque los milicianos afirmaron que buscaban venganza por las incursiones indígenas en sus asentamientos fronterizos, los indígenas que asesinaron no habían jugado ningún papel en ningún ataque.

Este infame ataque a los no combatientes llevó a una pérdida de fe en los patriotas por parte de sus aliados indios y a represalias contra los patriotas cautivos bajo custodia india. Los indios resucitaron la práctica de la tortura ritualizada, interrumpida durante la Guerra de los Siete Años, sobre los hombres que pudieron aprehender que habían participado en la atrocidad de Gnadenhuetten.

Aunque los moravos y sus conversos indios eran pacifistas que se negaban a matar bajo ninguna circunstancia, encontraron otras formas de ayudar a la causa patriota. Como otros aliados indios que se negaron a matar a otros indios, ayudaron a los patriotas trabajando como guías y espías. Los misioneros alemanes de Moravia también estaban proporcionando a los estadounidenses información crítica, por lo que luego fueron arrestados y juzgados por los británicos.

Nada de esto protegió a los indígenas cuando 160 miembros de la milicia de Pensilvania decidieron actuar como juez, jurado y verdugo. Los indios de Delaware que asesinaron eran pacifistas neutrales. Sus misioneros cristianos estaban ayudando a la causa patriota. Además, no vivían de la manera descrita como salvaje por los colonos europeos, sino que se dedicaban a la agricultura asentada al estilo europeo en su aldea de misión. No hubo justificación política, religiosa o cultural para la brutalidad indiscriminada de los milicianos durante la masacre de Gnadenhuetten. El incidente es tristemente ilustrativo del racismo anti-indio que a veces superó incluso las lealtades políticas durante la Revolución Americana.


Milicianos de Pensilvania asesinan a aliados patriotas - HISTORIA

El apoyo a la lucha por la independencia llegó lentamente a los colonos escoceses-irlandeses y alemanes que vivían en las fronteras de Pensilvania. Hasta 1774, tendían a estar más preocupados por los problemas inmediatos de las disputas fronterizas y la defensa fronteriza, problemas de los que culparon al gobierno provincial de Filadelfia, que solo prestó una atención reacia a estos temas. Sin embargo, después de la aprobación por el Parlamento de las Leyes Intolerables, los colonos en el interior de Pensilvania formaron rápidamente comités radicales de correspondencia y se comprometieron plenamente con la causa revolucionaria.

Las fronteras de Pensilvania estaban listas para el conflicto. Las cartas reales originales de Connecticut, Virginia y Pensilvania tenían límites vagos y superpuestos que llevaron a disputas por millones de acres.

Cuando estalló la Revolución Americana, estas disputas fronterizas de larga data y décadas de hostilidades latentes entre los colonos fronterizos y los nativos americanos estallaron en una guerra brutal y sangrienta. Esta guerra también socavó los prejuicios locales del interior de Pensilvania al unir a los colonos escoceses-irlandeses y alemanes que lucharon en una guerra de tres frentes - contra los británicos, los indios y los inmigrantes de Virginia y Connecticut - y vinculándolos más estrechamente al gobierno estatal en Filadelfia que antes de la guerra se había mostrado tan distante e indiferente a sus preocupaciones.

Los conflictos con los nativos americanos y las colonias vecinas de Pensilvania causados ​​por fronteras vagamente definidas habían comenzado a fines del siglo XVII. Connecticut había reclamado la mitad norte de Pensilvania bajo su carta "mar a mar" de 1662. A principios de la década de 1760, los colonos de Connecticut hambrientos de tierra, liderados por el coronel John Franklin, habían comenzado a fluir hacia el valle de Wyoming. La familia Penn protestó y en 1763 las autoridades británicas exigieron a Connecticut que impidiera cualquier asentamiento adicional de sus residentes en el territorio en disputa.

Al mismo tiempo, los Penns otorgaron concesiones de tierras a los colonos de Pennsylvania con la condición de que defendieran el territorio contra los reclamantes de Connecticut. Esto desencadenó una serie de "guerras Yankee-Pennamite" que comenzaron cuando los yanquis de Connecticut movilizaron sus fuerzas en Fort Durkee en 1769, y luego se intensificaron después de que los pennamitas construyeron y tripularon Fort Wyoming en 1771. Las guerras yanquis-penamitas duraron durante todo el período revolucionario. terminando en 1784. Durante la Revolución Americana, muchos iroqueses, con la esperanza de asegurar su propio control del área, unieron fuerzas con los Rangers británicos y arrasaron los asentamientos blancos en el Valle de Wyoming.

El suroeste de Pensilvania también fue territorio en disputa en vísperas de la Independencia. Virginia había reclamado durante mucho tiempo el acceso a las cabeceras del río Ohio bajo su propia carta de 1609 "mar a mar". En 1774, el gobernador de Virginia, Lord Dunmore, aprovechó los conflictos indígenas en el área para solidificar esa afirmación. En Augusta Town, en el actual condado de Washington, los colonos reclamaron tierras bajo la jurisdicción de Virginia que formaron un distrito en el condado de Augusta de Virginia. Allí también organizaron el primer tribunal del condado al oeste del río Monongahela.

De todas las disputas fronterizas de Pensilvania, sin embargo, aquellas con los indios fueron las más prolongadas y severas. Originalmente, las tribus algonquinas que habitaban Pensilvania disfrutaban de relaciones amistosas con los primeros colonos europeos, especialmente William Penn, cuya propiedad de la colonia marcó el comienzo de una amistad única basada en la confianza y el respeto mutuos. Pero después de su muerte en 1718, los hijos de Penn, ansiosos por mejorar su riqueza y poder personal, engañaron a los indios para que abandonaran sus tierras a través de actos notorios como la Compra Caminante de 1737. Cinco años después, los Penn se aliaron con los iroqueses para expulsar al Delaware. de sus tierras en el valle de Susquehanna.

Durante los siguientes quince años, la alianza de la familia Penn con los iroqueses resultó en importantes adquisiciones de tierras. Los colonos se mudaron a los condados de Schuylkill, Carbon, Dauphin, Northumberland, Columbia y Luzerne, empujaron hacia el oeste hasta las montañas Allegheny y desde el centro del condado al sur hasta el límite de la colonia con Maryland. Durante la Guerra Francesa e India, Delaware y Shawnee, todavía amargados por la Compra Caminante, atacaron los asentamientos fronterizos para vengar sus pérdidas. Este conflicto no declarado empeoró después del final de la guerra cuando la Línea de Proclamación de 1763 prohibió los asentamientos blancos al oeste de los Apalaches. En el valle de Susquehanna, los colonos escoceses-irlandeses registraron su desaprobación de los vecinos indios al matar indios neutrales de Conestoga cerca de Lancaster en 1764.

Después de que estalló la Guerra Revolucionaria, la hostilidad hacia los indios se volvió candente debido a las lealtades divididas de varias tribus. Para crear un segundo frente militar contra las colonias rebeldes, en mayo de 1776 los británicos celebraron una conferencia en Fort Niagara, donde consiguieron el apoyo de muchas tribus, incluidas muchas iroqueses y Delaware. Para contrarrestar la alianza, la legislatura de Pensilvania y el Congreso Continental convocaron una conferencia india en Easton en enero de 1777. Aunque los iroqueses aseguraron sus intenciones de permanecer neutrales, llevaron a cabo incursiones esporádicas en todo el norte de Pensilvania y en casi todos los condados del oeste. durante los próximos años.

La frontera noreste de Pensilvania, todavía dividida por el conflicto territorial yanqui-pennamita, también se convirtió en un campo de batalla muy disputado entre blancos e indios. Los salvajes ataques de atropello y fuga de las fuerzas conjuntas británicas e iroquesas culminaron en una masacre de milicianos y civiles de Pensilvania en la batalla de Wyoming en julio de 1778.

Esta devastadora derrota patriota, conocida como el "horror supremo de la Revolución Estadounidense", dejó la frontera norte abierta a la depredación y obligó a las autoridades continentales a reunir un ejército lo suficientemente grande como para romper el poder de los indios probritánicos.

En junio de 1779, el general John Sullivan reunió a 2.500 fuerzas continentales en Easton y luego las marchó a Fort Wyoming en el río Susquehanna. Después de otro mes de movilización y preparación, el ejército marchó por la rama este del Susquehanna a través de Tioga y entró en Nueva York. El 29 de agosto, las fuerzas de Sullivan derrotaron a los Rangers del coronel John Butler y a 1.500 indios al mando de Joseph Brandt en Newtown. Desde allí, Sullivan marchó hacia el norte, destruyendo los pueblos iroqueses y todos los huertos, campos y cultivos que los rodeaban. La campaña de Sullivan debilitó a las tribus orientales tan severamente que nunca volvieron a amenazar seriamente la frontera de Pensilvania.

Entre 1780 y el final de la guerra en 1783, los colonos fronterizos de Pensilvania continuaron sufriendo incursiones esporádicas de los indios, especialmente en los condados occidentales. La tortura y muerte del coronel William Crawford por los indios Sandusky en 1782 alimentó el deseo de los habitantes de Pensilvania de librar al estado de sus últimos habitantes nativos. La última amenaza de la resistencia india terminaría en 1795, cuando la victoria del general Anthony Wayne en la Batalla de Fallen Timbers, en la actual Ohio, aseguró el control de los territorios del noroeste de Pensilvania.

Al final de la guerra, Pensilvania había ganado el control de las áreas en disputa en el noreste y recibió el título de la mayoría de las tierras en disputa en el oeste de Pensilvania, a excepción de lo que ahora es el "panhandle" de Virginia Occidental. La sangrienta y cruel guerra de guerrillas que estalló en las fronteras de Pensilvania durante la Guerra por la Independencia de Estados Unidos reforzó las actitudes racistas de los blancos hacia los nativos americanos y animó a los habitantes de Pensilvania a presionar sus reclamos de tierras en la frontera contra los nativos americanos y los estados vecinos.

Después de que terminó la guerra, el estado también usó tierras recientemente en manos de los indios para pagar a los veteranos por su servicio en el Ejército Continental. También vendió decenas de miles de acres a emprendedores especuladores de tierras, que esperaban aumentar su riqueza personal revendiendo esas tierras con grandes ganancias. En la década de 1790, la Commonwealth también había extinguido todos los reclamos de los indios sobre sus tierras dentro del estado.


"Masacre de indios" es una frase cuyo uso y definición ha evolucionado y se ha expandido con el tiempo. La frase fue utilizada inicialmente por los colonos europeos para describir los ataques de los indígenas estadounidenses que resultaron en bajas coloniales masivas. Mientras que los ataques similares de los colonos a las aldeas indias se denominaron "incursiones" o "batallas", los ataques indios que tuvieron éxito en asentamientos blancos o puestos militares se denominaron habitualmente "masacres". Sabiendo muy poco acerca de los habitantes nativos de la frontera estadounidense, los colonos eran profundamente temerosos y, a menudo, eran estadounidenses de origen europeo que rara vez, o nunca, habían visto a un nativo americano leer historias de atrocidades indígenas en la literatura popular y los periódicos. Se hizo hincapié en las depredaciones de los "salvajes asesinos" en su información sobre los indios y, a medida que los migrantes se dirigían hacia el oeste, con frecuencia temían a los indios con los que se encontraban. [1] [2]

La frase finalmente se volvió comúnmente utilizada para describir también las matanzas masivas de indios americanos. Los asesinatos descritos como "masacres" a menudo tenían un elemento de ataque indiscriminado, barbarie o intención genocida. [3] Según un historiador [ ¿Quién? ], "Cualquier discusión sobre genocidio debe, por supuesto, considerar eventualmente las llamadas Guerras Indias", el término comúnmente utilizado para las campañas del Ejército de los Estados Unidos para subyugar a las naciones indias del Oeste americano a partir de la década de 1860. En una historiografía más antigua, los acontecimientos clave de esta historia se narraron como batallas.

Desde finales del siglo XX, se ha vuelto más común que los académicos se refieran a algunos de estos eventos como masacres, especialmente si hubo un gran número de mujeres y niños como víctimas. Esto incluye la matanza de Cheyenne por la milicia territorial de Colorado en Sand Creek (1864), y la matanza de Shoshone por el ejército estadounidense en Bear River (1863), Blackfeet en el río Marias (1870) y Lakota en Wounded Knee (1890). Algunos estudiosos han comenzado a referirse a estos eventos como "masacres genocidas", definidas como la aniquilación de una parte de un grupo más grande, a veces para proporcionar una lección al grupo más grande. [4]

Es difícil determinar el número total de personas que murieron como resultado de las "masacres de indios". En The Wild Frontier: Atrocidades durante la guerra entre los indios estadounidenses y estadounidenses desde la colonia de Jamestown hasta Wounded Knee, el abogado William M. Osborn compiló una lista de atrocidades supuestas y reales en lo que eventualmente se convertiría en los Estados Unidos continentales, desde el primer contacto en 1511 hasta 1890. Sus parámetros de inclusión incluyeron el asesinato, la tortura o la mutilación intencional e indiscriminada de civiles, los heridos y los prisioneros. Su lista incluía 7.193 personas que murieron por atrocidades perpetradas por personas de ascendencia europea y 9.156 personas que murieron por atrocidades perpetradas por nativos americanos. [5]

En Un genocidio estadounidense, Estados Unidos y la catástrofe de California, 1846–1873, el historiador Benjamin Madley registró el número de asesinatos de indios de California entre 1846 y 1873. Encontró evidencia de que durante este período, al menos entre 9,400 y 16,000 indios de California fueron asesinados por no indios. La mayoría de estos asesinatos ocurrieron en lo que dijo fueron más de 370 masacres (definidas por él como "el asesinato intencional de cinco o más combatientes desarmados o no combatientes en gran parte desarmados, incluidas mujeres, niños y prisioneros, ya sea en el contexto de una batalla o de lo contrario"). [6]

Esta es una lista de algunos de los hechos denunciados entonces o denominados ahora "masacre de indios". Esta lista contiene solo incidentes que ocurrieron en Canadá o los Estados Unidos, o en un territorio que actualmente forma parte de los Estados Unidos.

Era precolombina Editar

Año Fecha Nombre Ubicación actual Descripción Víctimas nativas reportadas
1325 Masacre de Crow Creek Dakota del Sur 486 muertos conocidos fueron descubiertos en un sitio arqueológico cerca de Chamberlain, Dakota del Sur. Tanto las víctimas como los perpetradores eran grupos desconocidos de nativos americanos. 486 [7]

1500–1830 Editar

After the Fall of Tenochtitlan the remaining Aztec warriors and civilians fled the city as the Spanish allies, primarily the Tlaxcalans, continued to attack even after the surrender, slaughtering thousands of the remaining civilians and looting the city. The Tlaxcalans did not spare women or children: they entered houses, stealing all precious things they found, raping and then killing women, stabbing children. The survivors marched out of the city for the next three days. One source claims 6,000 were massacred in the town of Ixtapalapa alone.


10 More Little Known Massacres

Unfortunately, there are plenty of horrendous massacres, genocides and mass killings in history. For many of us, learning about them appeals to our morbid curiosity. You should all be familiar with the most well-known of these tragedies: the Holocaust, Wounded Knee, the Rwandan Genocide, etc. But like most historical topics, there are lots of events that tend to be swept under the rug, all arguably just as interesting and intriguing as the household names. You may have heard of some of these, but I think the majority of the entries in this list will be among the most fascinating, and thought-provoking, massacres in history that you&rsquove never heard of. In order, from earliest to most recent:

In the aftermath of the Fall of Acre, during the Third Crusade, Richard the Lionheart attempted to negotiate terms of surrender with the Saracens. Richard wanted to exchange over 3,000 captured prisoners for the True Cross, as well as a hefty ransom and imprisoned Christians. The True Cross was believed to be the actual physical cross upon which Jesus Christ was crucified.

After much delay by Saladin and the Muslims, Richard, frustrated and angered, personally marched his prisoners to a hill called Ayyadieh. There, in full view of the nearby Muslim army encampment, Richard ordered the slaughter of the over 3,000 prisoners, women and children included. They were all mercilessly beaten to death, axed and cut down by swords and lances. A Muslim force, so enraged by this act, attempted to charge the crusader lines but was repeatedly beaten back, allowing Richard and his army to retire in good order. Thus concluded one of the most unusually ruthless battles/massacres, even by Crusades&rsquo standards.

The Sicilians, fed up with being occupied by foreign forces, decided to go all out in their revolt against the French and their 20 year reign over the Kingdom of Sicily. With tensions high, thousands of Sicilians gathered for Easter Monday services and festivities at the Church of Santo Spirito in Palermo. 200 armed French troops soon arrived to frisk the Sicilians in search of any weapons. Though emotions were close to boiling over, the Sicilians obeyed their French occupiers, attempting to avoid any trouble. A Frenchman unwisely took the opportunity to grope a young maiden, thrusting his hand down her blouse. &ldquoDeath to the French&rdquo was cried as a young man took the Frenchman&rsquos sword and slew him on the spot. Chaos ensued as the outnumbered, but armed, French troops were at the mercy of an unruly mob of Sicilians. Though they suffered many casualties, the Sicilians succeeded in massacring all 200 French soldiers. The War of the Sicilian Vespers had begun, and the savagery would continue.

The streets of Palermo would flow red with French blood. Attempting to eradicate all traces of the French from their island, Sicilian women who had married Frenchmen were also slaughtered. Their children were not spared, as they were butchered in front of their mothers. The wombs of women believed to have been impregnated by Frenchmen were ripped out. Those of questionable origin were forced to say the word &ldquociciri&rdquo, which the French had difficulty pronouncing. The pious Sicilians even stormed the monasteries and murdered French monks. Upwards of 2,000 were killed that first day of the massacres, and thousands more would perish in the following weeks.

Ordered by Francis I of France, roughly 2,000 soldiers were sent in to slaughter the Waldensian population within the village of Merindol, and over twenty other towns. Because of their connection to the Protestants, Calvinists and other unorthodox, heretical &ldquoopposition&rdquo groups, the scourge of the Waldensians was approved by Pope Paul III and the Catholic Church. Thousands were murdered and hundreds more were sent to forced labor camps. Interestingly, the execution of one particular man is thought to be the first example of execution by firing squad in Europe.

The Bloody Assizes were a series of trials conducted by, Chief Justice George Jeffreys, in the aftermath of the Battle of Sedgemoor, which concluded the Monmouth Rebellion in England. After the Duke of Monmouth was executed for treason, over 1,400 of his supporters and fellow rebels were imprisoned, tried and executed or deported to a penal colony in the West Indies as a source of cheap labor. Most were executed for treason via burning at the stake, though at least one woman&rsquos sentence was commuted to beheading. The law recognized no distinction between principals and accessories in treason. About 300 rebels were hanged, drawn and quartered. 144 more were hanged, with their corpses being displayed around the county as a warning to those who are tempted to rebel against the king. Over 800 rebels were sent to the West Indies. Most of the rebels still awaiting trial in prison, died from the unsanitary living conditions, which manifested Typhus. Interestingly, a woman named Elisabeth Gaunt had the distinction of being the last woman in England to be burnt for political crimes.

When William III became King of England, it was required that the Highland chieftains of Scotland, under penalty of death, were to take an oath of submission and allegiance to the rule of William and Mary, by a deadline set for January 1st, 1692. Unfortunately, the chieftain of the Macdonald clan of Glencoe, was delayed by a blizzard. He did not take the oath until January 5th. Upon being informed of the missed deadline, King William ordered the Macdonald clan to be eliminated. By February, 120 of the king&rsquos men arrived at Glencoe where they were hospitably entertained for twelve days. In the early morning hours of February 13th, the men were ordered to slaughter every Macdonald under the age of seventy. While the bloodbath at dawn was taking place, a majority of the Macdonalds were able to escape into the wilderness, where they were forced to remain in hiding for months. Thirty-eight adult men in the Macdonald clan were slaughtered, along with forty women and children who died of exposure. The crime was deemed even more heinous under Scottish law, due to it being &ldquomurder under trust.&rdquo The rival Campbell clan is also said to be partly responsible, given that the Macdonald chieftain, who was slain in the massacre, had received a letter of protection if the situation warranted him to take the oath after the deadline had passed, thus creating a veil of suspicion over the entire outcome of this event.

One of the most brutal raids of the American Revolution, a Loyalist-Iroquois coalition massacred more than 200 unsuspecting Patriot militiamen. Having raided and scorched dozens of frontier towns in upstate New York and Pennsylvania, the British arrived in Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, on July 3rd. The Patriots, inexperienced and outnumbered, were ambushed and subsequently routed following a forty-five minute close combat battle. As the Patriot line crumbled, the Iroquois began brutally hunting down survivors. Only sixty Americans survived to see another day, and only five were taken prisoner. Fleeing soldiers who had surrendered, were tortured to death by Loyalists and Iroquois. It was reported that 227 Patriot scalps were collected. Dozens of bodies were found on the line of retreat, which were all buried in a common grave. In retaliation, the Sullivan Expedition, commissioned by General George Washington, systematically destroyed at least forty Iroquois villages throughout upstate New York, in 1779. Another gruesome massacre would take place against the Continental Army at Cherry Valley. Reports of the massacres of prisoners at Wyoming and atrocities at Cherry Valley enraged the American public.

The Auspicious Incident was the forced disbandment of the centuries-old Janissary corps by Ottoman sultan Mahmud II, who felt that the elite guard unit had acquired too much power and influence over the declining Ottoman Empire. Mahmud incited the Janissaries to revolt on purpose, in order to give reason in destroying them. Mahmud said that he was creating a new army, made up of mostly Turks, as the Janissaries were Christians from conquered countries (who were later converted to Islam). Thus, as predicted, they mutinied, advancing on the sultan&rsquos palace. In the ensuing fight, the Janissary barracks were bombarded and obliterated by artillery fire, resulting in 4,000 Janissary fatalities more were killed in the heavy fighting on the streets of Constantinople. The survivors either fled or were executed, and their possessions were confiscated by the Sultan. The last of the Janissaries were then put to death by decapitation in what was later called the blood tower, in Thessaloniki. Thousands of Janissaries had been killed, and the elite order came to its end. A new modern corps, Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye (Muhammed&rsquos Victorious Army) was established by Mahmud II to guard the Sultan and replace the Janissaries.

The Sauk Chief, Black Hawk, was unhappy with the deal the United States made with his people for their land. Angered by the loss of his birthplace, Black Hawk led a number of incursions across the Mississippi River into Illinois, during 1830 and 1831, but each time was persuaded to return west without bloodshed. In April 1832, encouraged by promises of alliance with other tribes and the British, he again moved his so-called &ldquoBritish Band&rdquo of around 1,000 warriors and non-combatants into Illinois. Finding no allies, he attempted to return across the Mississippi to present-day Iowa again, but the undisciplined Illinois Militia&rsquos actions led to Black Hawk&rsquos surprising victory at the Battle of Stillman&rsquos Run. A number of other engagements followed, and the militia of Michigan Territory and the state of Illinois were mobilized to hunt down Black Hawk&rsquos band. The conflict became known as the Black Hawk War. The Battle of Bad Axe followed the Battle of Wisconsin Heights and was the final battle of the Black Hawk War. Women and children fled the fight into the river, where many drowned immediately. The soldiers killed everyone who tried to run for cover or cross the river men, women and children alike were shot dead. More than 150 people were killed outright at the scene of the battle, which many combatants later termed a massacre. The soldiers then scalped most of the dead, and cut long strips of flesh from others for use as razor strops. U.S. forces captured an additional 75 Native Americans. Those who managed to escape across the river found only temporary reprieve, as many were captured and killed by Sioux warriors acting in support of the U.S. Army.

The attack is thought to have been instigated by exiled leaders of Al-Gama&rsquoa al-Islamiyya, an Egyptian Islamist organization, attempting to undermine the July 1997 &ldquoNonviolence Initiative&rdquo, devastate the Egyptian economy and provoke the government into repression that would strengthen support for anti-government forces. The Islamic Group was against a secular Egypt, and desired to establish an Islamic state in its place. They also demanded the release of their leader, cleric Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman, imprisoned in the United States for conspiracy in the 1993 World Trade Center Bombing in New York. The six assailants were armed with automatic firearms and knives, and disguised as members of the security forces. They descended on the Temple of Hatshepsut and would ultimately take the lives of 62 tourists.

With the tourists trapped inside the temple, the killing went on systematically for 45 minutes, during which many bodies, especially of women, were mutilated with machetes. A note praising Islam was found inside one disemboweled body. The dead included a five-year-old British child and four Japanese couples on their honeymoons. The attackers then hijacked a bus, but ran into a checkpoint of armed Egyptian tourist police and military forces. One of the terrorists was wounded in the shootout and the rest fled into the hills where their bodies were found in a cave, apparently having committed suicide together.

Being a pre-9/11 terrorist attack, like the 1993 WTC bombing and 1995 Oklahoma City bombing to a lesser extent, it has often been ignored and pushed aside in the history books. Besides 9/11, this is partially because it did not have the desired effect the terrorists wanted, it arguably backfired on them. Egyptian public opinion turned against them and the organizers and supporters began denying involvement.

Credonia Mwerinde was the high priestess and co-founder of the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, a sect that splintered from the Roman Catholic Church in Uganda. Mwerinde and Joseph Kibweteere claimed to have witnessed visions of the Virgin Mary. With the new millennium looming, activity by Movement members became frenzied, their leaders urged them to confess their sins in preparation for the apocalypse. January 1st, 2000, passed without the advent of the apocalypse, and the Movement began to unravel. Another date was immediately predicted, March 17 was the new end of the world. When that date came around, over 500 members entered a church in western Uganda and began singing. Hours later, the building was set on fire, with the doors locked and the windows boarded up and nailed shut. Everyone inside was incinerated, including eleven children. At first the authorities thought the church fire was a mass suicide attempt by the cult, but later they changed their minds when bodies began to show up in other places.

Members wanted their money back when the world didn&rsquot end and the cult leaders refused, so they murdered them all. Bodies were found in wells, latrines, under houses and in gardens. Some members had been poisoned, stabbed or clubbed. The estimated death toll is about 1,000. Although it was initially assumed that the five leaders died in the fire, police now believe that Joseph Kibweteere and Credonia Mwerinde may still be alive, and have issued an international warrant for their arrest.


Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia

The Seneca tribe was one of six that formed the Iroquois League. Seneca war chief Cornplanter, shown here in an 1836 color lithograph by J.T. Bowen, based on a 1796 painting by F. G. Bertoli, fought in both the Seven Years' War (also known as the French and Indian War) and the American Revolution, and later served as a diplomat with the United States. Cornplanter was one of the signatories on the 1784 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, which ceded huge tracts of northwestern Pennsylvania to the United States.

In reward for his service, the United States granted Cornplanter a tract of about 1,500 acres in northwestern Pennsylvania in 1796. The land was to forever remain in possession of the Seneca tribe. It was the final Indian settlement in Pennsylvania. Despite over 150 years of occupation, in 1965 the residents of Cornplanter's Town were forced to relocate to the Allegany Reservation in New York when the Kinzua Dam was constructed and the land was flooded.

Lenape Indians

Members of the Delaware tribe, also known as the Lenape, are depicted in this 1702 engraving by Thomas C. Holm. They historically occupied the Delaware River basin from southern New York to southern Delaware along the Atlantic coast, and west along the Schuylkill River into central Pennsylvania. The Delawares were stripped of a large portion of their homelands by the Walking Purchase in 1737 and many were forced to migrate farther west. The Delaware people formed new homelands by combining with other displaced tribes such as the Shawnees and Senecas. A series of land deals between the Iroquois and the colonists further stripped the Delaware of their lands and forced them out of the state. Delaware diplomat Teedyuscung, in an attempt to secure land near Wilkes-Barre for his tribe, negotiated the Treaty of Easton with the British in 1758, but the American Revolution nullified the treaty. The Delaware were forced out of Pennsylvania and often died in defense of their homeland.

By the early twenty-first century, the Delaware tribe numbered some 16,000 members. The majority of these people live in Oklahoma after centuries of forced western migration. Two small tribes of Delaware remain in New Jersey.

Iroquois Six Nations Land Cessions to Pennsylvania, 1736-1792

Between 1736 and 1792, the Iroquois League, formed of the Seneca, Oneida, Mohawk, Cayuga, Tuscarora, and Onondaga tribes, made several important land deals with American colonists, often without the consent of those tribes who occupied the land. This map shows the land cessions made by the Iroquois from 1736 to 1792, spanning from Lake Michigan in the west to the Atlantic Ocean. In western Pennsylvania, the Iroquois ceded significant tracts of land to the Penn family and Connecticut's Susquehannah Company in 1754. They later aided Virginia land speculators in obtaining the “Ohio country” in central Pennsylvania, where many Delaware Indians migrated as European settlers encroached on their historic homelands. In 1768, they negotiated the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, selling large swaths of Delaware and Shawnee land in central Pennsylvania without the approval of those tribes. By the end of the 1790s, the Delaware and Shawnee had been effectively forced out of Pennsylvania.

The Iroquois League continues to this day, with over 120,000 enrolled members.

The Paxton Boys' Massacre by William Sinclair

In 1763, a confederation of Indian tribes in the Great Lakes area conspired to attack the British forces occupying their land in the wake of the French and Indian War. The panic generated by this event caused a violent backlash in Pennsylvania. This image shows the Paxton Boys, a Scots-Irish vigilante group that attacked the Conestoga tribe at the Conestoga Indian Village in Lancaster County under the pretense that the tribe was harboring spies. Despite the Conestogas having been historically friendly to the settlers, the Paxton Boys murdered all twenty residents of the village in two attacks. After first losing six members within the village to violent ends on December 14, the fourteen remaining Conestogas fled to Lancaster where they were secured in the county jail for their safety. The Paxton Boys continued to pursue the Conestogas and on December 27 the remaining members of the village were murdered in the jailhouse.

In January 1764, the Paxton Boys marched to Philadelphia, where they threatened violence against Pennsylvania's remaining Indian tribes in the Moravian Missions. Further violence was avoided as Benjamin Franklin and other city leaders intervened against the Paxton Boys. This 1841 image by William Sinclair shows the brutal massacre of the Conestogas by the Paxton Boys.

Penn's Treaty with the Indians

This painting, Penn’s Treaty with the Indians, by Benjamin West (1738-1820), depicts the legendary meeting of William Penn with Lenape Indians in which they agreed to coexist peacefully, as West imagined it.

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Native American-Pennsylvania Relations, 1754-89

Relations between Pennsylvania’s Native American and European peoples underwent cataclysmic change during the second half of the eighteenth century. Despite the reputation for peaceful intercultural relations that Pennsylvania had enjoyed since its founding in 1681, a series of wars engulfed its frontiers after 1754, leading to the dispossession and exile of the colony’s native peoples. During the Seven Years’ War, which lasted in North America from 1754 to 1760, the colony that William Penn had envisioned as a “peaceable kingdom” became instead the scene of some of the most horrific interracial violence in early America. The disruption of Pennsylvania’s Indian relations caused a deep political rift to open between Philadelphia’s Quaker community and colonists living along the Susquehanna Valley frontier. By the 1790s, Native Americans and Pennsylvania’s European peoples were permanently estranged from each other, and no Indian nations retained secure possession of homelands within the state’s borders.

By 1754, European colonization had substantially altered the location and number of Native Americans in Pennsylvania. The Delawares (also known as Lenapes) had been mostly dispossessed from the river valley that was their original homeland. Despite being stripped of their claim to the Lehigh Valley by the Walking Purchase (1737), some Delawares still lived in that region in Moravian missions while others remained in small towns in central and southern New Jersey. Many Delawares had migrated into the Susquehanna Valley and the Ohio-Allegheny region, which was called the “Ohio country” by colonists. Elsewhere, Indians from the northern Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina migrated into the Susquehanna Valley in the early eighteenth century. By the 1740s, two Indian towns with polyglot populations had become important centers in Pennsylvania’s Indian relations: Conestoga in Lancaster County and Shamokin, at the juncture of the north and west branches of the Susquehanna (modern Sunbury). Farther west, Delawares who settled in the Ohio country were joined there by Shawnees and Senecas who were also drawn to the region by its bountiful resources. Thus, on the eve of the Seven Years’ War, Pennsylvania’s native population included a number of groups that had already experienced the consequences of colonization. By moving into the Susquehanna and Ohio regions, where they amalgamated with each other, these groups established new homelands and new alliances to defend them.

The Iroquois league made several land deals with Pennsylvania, ceding the land of other tribes without their consent. This map shows the land deals made between Pennsylvania and the Iroquois from 1736 to 1792. (Historical Society of Pennsylvania)

In 1754, the Natives’ claim to these homelands came under attack from several directions. Agents acting on behalf of the Penn family and Connecticut’s Susquehannah Company completed land purchases with the Iroquois Indians of New York who ceded significant portions of western Pennsylvania without any approval from the Indians who lived there. Virginian land speculators raced against the Penn family to lay claim to the Ohio country, again relying on cooperative Iroquois from New York. At the same time, the French asserted their possession of the region by building forts between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. After a British army commanded by General Edward Braddock was defeated by a French and Indian force at the Monongahela River in July 1755, war engulfed the Pennsylvania frontier. Delawares and Shawnees supplied by the French at Fort Duquesne (modern Pittsburgh) raided frontier communities in a broad arc from northwestern New Jersey through the Lehigh Valley to the Juniata River, taking captives, destroying livestock, and killing poorly defended settlers. Pennsylvania’s government responded by instituting scalp bounties that encouraged indiscriminate reprisals against any Indians within the colony’s borders.

Easton Treaty of 1758

A Delaware Indian named Teedyuscung (1700?-1763) emerged as an important intercultural diplomat at a series of treaty conferences convened in Easton, Pennsylvania, between 1755 and 1758. Teedyuscung claimed to represent ten Indian nations, but his chief objective was securing the Delawares’ possession of the Wyoming Valley, along the northern branch of the Susquehanna River (near modern Wilkes-Barre). In negotiations with the Pennsylvanians and other British colonial officials, he asserted the Pennsylvania Indians’ independence from the Iroquois. In this effort, he was supported by Philadelphia Quakers who sought to restore peace by exposing the fraudulent land purchases William Penn’s heirs had made with the Iroquois. Although neither Teedyuscung nor the Quakers succeeded entirely in their mission, the Easton Treaty of 1758 did end Pennsylvania’s Indian war by restoring some of the disputed territory and by promising that the British would evacuate the Ohio country after the French had been defeated.

The Paxton Boys were a vigilante group that led a violent raid on the Conestoga tribe’s small settlement in December 1763. All members of the tribe were killed. (Historical Society of Pennsylvania)

An uneasy peace returned to Pennsylvania after 1758, but the war had permanently altered relations there between native and European peoples. Pennsylvania colonists, despite their ethnic and cultural differences, came to see themselves as sharing a common, racially-defined “white” identity in contrast to the Indians’ “savage” one. In the Ohio country, a Delaware prophet named Neolin (fl. 1760) preached a doctrine of “separate paths,” urging Indians to revive ancient customs and spurn Christianity, alcohol, and other aspects of colonial culture he held responsible for corrupting the native way of life. This revivalist message fueled a pan-Indian resistance to the soldiers and settlers who began moving into the Ohio and Susquehanna regions after 1758. In 1763, renewed hostilities sparked by military occupation and land-grabbing broke out in western Pennsylvania. Pontiac’s War (1763-65) plunged the Pennsylvania frontier into another wave of violence, including an Indian siege at Fort Pitt (the British post built on the site of the old Fort Duquesne), during which British officers discussed using smallpox as a biological weapon against the enemy. In Lancaster County, a group of colonial vigilantes known as the Paxton Boys murdered the Native population of Conestoga Indian Town, which had been allied with the Pennsylvania government since 1701. The Paxton Boys then marched on Philadelphia, threatening to kill Indians from the Moravian missions who had sought refuge there, but intervention by Benjamin Franklin (1706-90) and other city leaders prevented further violence.

By 1765, a decade of warfare had altered the power dynamic in Pennsylvania’s Indian relations. Quakers no longer exerted moral or political authority in the colony’s Indian policy. Instead, frontier settlers assumed all Indians were hostile and tacitly condoned their exile or murder. Speculators from within and outside the colony competed against each other for Indian land, paying little heed to the retrocessions that natives had negotiated at Easton in 1758. At the Fort Stanwix Treaty of 1768, the British Crown’s Indian agent Sir William Johnson (1715-74) conducted yet another land sale with the Iroquois that ceded Delaware and Shawnee homelands without their consent.

The Revolution’s Toll on Indians

Seneca war chief Cornplanter fought in the Seven Years’ War and Revolutionary War and helped negotiate the Treaty of Fort Stanwix. He was given a tract of land by the U.S. government that became the last Native American enclave in Pennsylvania. (Wellcome Images)

The American Revolution accelerated Indian dispossession in Pennsylvania. Freed from the restraints of British imperial authority, the Americans attacked and uprooted Native populations. A Continental Army expedition in 1779 laid waste to Indian towns in the northern Susquehanna and Allegheny Valleys. In March 1782, militiamen from the Pittsburgh area murdered nearly 100 Delaware men, women, and children in the Moravian mission town of Gnadenhütten in the Ohio country. By the war’s end, nearly every Indian community within Pennsylvania’s borders had either been destroyed or abandoned and their survivors forced to seek refuge in Ohio or New York. The state of Pennsylvania recognized no federal or state Indian reservations within its borders. By the 1790s, only one small Indian community remained within Pennsylvania: a group of Seneca Indians who lived along the Allegheny River on land privately owned by their leader, Cornplanter (c. 1750-1836). Cornplanter’s Town remained on this property until its inhabitants were forced to relocate onto Seneca reservation lands in New York by the construction of the Kinzua Dam in the 1960s.

Despite the fact that Indians and colonists alike often invoked the memory of William Penn in their treaty negotiations, the Quaker founder’s vision of a peaceable kingdom in Pennsylvania never came to fruition. The Penn family’s hunger for Indian land contributed to this deterioration in relations, but other causes included the militarization of Pennsylvania’s frontier after 1754, the unstoppable stream of settlers who invaded Indian territory, and the intrusion of imperial officials and land speculators from other colonies into Pennsylvania’s Indian affairs. Most importantly, after 1754 the mosaic of ethnic identities within Pennsylvania hardened into two separate and diametrically opposed racial categories: white and Indian. Europeans pursued policies that denied natives membership in the Pennsylvania commonwealth, while natives trying to survive the onslaught of colonization decided that their best option was to move beyond the reach of their European neighbors.

Timothy J. Shannon is Professor of History at Gettysburg College in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. His publications include Indians and Colonists at the Crossroad of Empire: The Albany Congress of 1754 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000) and Iroquois Diplomacy on the Early American Frontier (New York: Viking Penguin, 2008).

Copyright 2015, Rutgers University.

Related Reading

Dowd, Gregory Evans. War under Heaven: Pontiac, the Indian Nations, and the British Empire. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Jennings, Francis. Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America. Nueva York: W.W. Norton, 1988.

Kenny, Kevin. Peaceable Kingdom Lost: The Paxton Boys and the Destruction of William Penn’s Holy Experiment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Merrell, James H. Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Colonial Pennsylvania Frontier. Nueva York: W.W. Norton, 1999.

Merritt, Jane T. At the Crossroads: Indians and Empires on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Preston, David L. The Texture of Contact: European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667-1783. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009).

Richter, Daniel K. Native Americans’ Pennsylvania. University Park: Pennsylvania Historical Association, 2005.

Schutt, Amy C. Peoples of the River Valleys: The Odyssey of the Delaware Indians. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

Shannon, Timothy J. Iroquois Diplomacy on the Early American Frontier. New York: Viking Penguin, 2008.

Silver, Peter. Our Savage Neighbors: How Indian War Transformed Early America. Nueva York: W.W. Norton, 2007.

Wallace, Anthony F. C. King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung, 1700-1763. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1990.

Ward, Matthew. Breaking the Backcountry: The Seven Years’ War in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 1754-1765. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2004.

Additional Reading

Boyd, Julian P., ed. Indian Treaties Printed by Benjamin Franklin, 1736-1762. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1938.

Jennings, Francis, et al., eds. The History and Culture of Iroquois Diplomacy: An Interdisciplinary Guide to the Treaties of the Six Nations and Their League. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1985.

Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, 16 volumes. Harrisburg: 1852-53.


LOCAL HISTORY: What we know about Lackawaxen’s “Unknown Soldier”

LACKAWAXEN – In the 1770’s Wayne and Pike Counties, Pennsylvania, or nearby counties- Sullivan and Orange Counties, NY in the east as well as what is now Lackawanna and Luzerne to the west, were still largely untamed virgin wilderness and more the province of Native Americans, than for anyone else. It would seem far removed from our limited realization of the War of Independence, otherwise known as the American Revolution.

LACKAWAXEN &ndash In the 1770&rsquos Wayne and Pike Counties, Pennsylvania, or nearby counties- Sullivan and Orange Counties, NY in the east as well as what is now Lackawanna and Luzerne to the west, were still largely untamed virgin wilderness and more the province of Native Americans, than for anyone else. It would seem far removed from our limited realization of the War of Independence, otherwise known as the American Revolution.
Yet it was here, on the Upper Delaware in 1779 that a battle transpired, and the Native American warriors with their Torey allies prevailed at the place called Minisink Ford, that summer day of July 22. The colonial militia, who were defeated, left behind many dead. One of them, a soldier whose name is known only to his Maker, was eventually laid to honored rest a short distance across the Delaware River in the burying ground at Lackawaxen, a village in Lackawaxen Township, Pike County, Pennsylvania. That was in 1847, 68 years after the muskets and tomahawks ceased at the short-lived Battle of Minisink.
It is this mysterious man we honor each year, at a ceremony on the Saturday closest to July 22nd, and hosted by a group of comrades who know all so well the price of war, members of Ecker-Haupt VFW Post 5635 in Lackawaxen. The commemoration in Lackawaxen has been held since 1975, with much thanks to Pike County Historian George J. Fluhr.

It was the spring of 1779. General George Washington responded to reports that frontier settlements in Mohawk, Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers were being subject to surprise attacks by Native American warriors allied with the Crown. Washington dispatched a strong force under Generals James Clinton and John Sullivan to punish the Indians in western New York.
At that time, the Mohawk leader, Joseph Brant, sent a force numbering about 60 Indians and 27 Loyalists down the Delaware River to take cattle and other supplies for his people in the western settlements. Following a rampage on Port Jervis on July 20, Brant and his men headed back up the Upper Delaware. News reached the settlers east of the Shawangunk Mountains (a ridge in Ulster and Orange Counties, NY). Approximately 120 militia men from Orange and Sussex Counties were summoned and sent to stop Brant and his force.
Reaching the Delaware, they learned that Brant and his men were already fording the River into Pennsylvania with their prisoners, plunder and cattle. The militia planned a surprise attack, but the discharge of one of their guns alerted Brant with enough time to counter the attack.
After a brief skirmish, the militia, greatly outnumbered, took position on a wooded hill above Minisink Ford.
Since some of his men were still on the New York side, Brant led them to the top of the hill, while the rest of his band came back over the river to join him. This hill was across from the present site of Lackawaxen and just downriver from the confluence with the tributary by that name.
Employing bush warfare, Brant was able to surround the colonial militia. The fight lasted about four hours. The militia eventually ran out of ammunition and Brant&rsquos force was able to penetrate the colonial lines, killing or wounding everyone that was unable to flee.
The militia&rsquos dead numbered approximately 47.
Because of the region&rsquos extreme isolation, the bodies lay where they fell among the ledges, rocks and trees for 43 years. In 1822, an expedition gathered what skeletal remains could be found, and brought them back to Goshen, Orange County, to be buried. They were laid to rest on July 22, 1822, the 43rd anniversary of the battle, with a ceremony attended by an estimated 12,000 people.
It may be, like the patriot honored at the grave of the Unknown Soldier in Lackawaxen, no one could identify the militiamen interred at Goshen. This was before the age of dog tags and DNA testing.
Given the passage of time not all the dead could be found, until one day, 25 years later, one more of those &ldquomissing in action&rdquo came back to light.
About 1847, Isaac Mills was searching for some cows belonging to his employer, N. B. Johnston in the hills in New York opposite the village of Lackawaxen. He came upon what must have been a startling and unnerving sight, an almost complete human skeleton under a rock ledge.
Sufficient evidence of the deceased&rsquos equipment as well uniform buttons was found with the bones, leaving no doubt this was one of the colonial militiamen killed at the Battle of Minisink.
Mills reported what he had found to his employer, and acted as a guide to a party of canal employees who brought the remains to Lackawaxen. Here, they made a coffin and placed them in the old burying ground near the river bank, in front of the Odd Fellows Lodge.
By this time Lackawaxen was a thriving village. The area would have little resembled what the militia would have seen in 1779. Logging on the Upper Delaware had started upriver in 1760. Much of the land had gradually become stripped of trees and where possible, farmers were breaking the rocky earth to try and raise crops and make pasture. Both the Delaware and the Lackawaxen Rivers had become busy thoroughfares for log rafts being taken to market.
Since 1827, Delaware & Hudson Canal boats were moving anthracite and other goods through here. Also in 1847, the Roebling Aqueduct was constructed at Lackawaxen to carry the canal over the river and allow free passage of rafts underneath.
One can look at the Roebling Bridge today, and ponder those canal men who may have crossed on the towpath bearing the remains of this &ldquounknown soldier.&rdquo
While it is not clear who began regular tending of the grave, it was remembered to have started at least as far back as the turn of the 20th century. Eventually, a bronze tablet was provided by the U.S. Government to be placed on the site. It reads simply:

UNKNOWN SOLDIER
REVOLUTIONARY WAR
KILLED IN THE BATTLE OOF MINISINK
JULY 22, 1779.

A monument was erected at the site of the Battle of Minisink on July 22, 1879.
&hellip..
ISAAC MILLS


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